Přemysl Ottokar I and the Golden Bull of Sicily. Second: his descendant Ottokar II and the last Přemyslid rulers - Václav II and Václav III
Přemyslid Ottokar I of Bohemia (1192–1193 and 1197–1230) was successfully manoeuvring in unstable Reich politics and restored hereditary king’s title that was lost during reign of his brothers. As his greatest success is considered the gain of the Golden Bull of Sicily.
In the Golden Bull of Sicly Emperor Frederick II also gave Bohemia and Moravia an exceptional position in Holy Roman Empire, being an autonomous and udivisible constituent of the Reich. The King was no longer subject to appointment by the Emperor and Czech ruler only needed to be approved by the people of their country.
During the reign of Václav I (1230–1253) Czech kingdom was one of the prominent influential states in Europe. After fending off the Mongol invasion Václav gained Austrian lands. After withstanding rebellion of Czech nobles led by his own son Ottokar II, he imprisoned his offspring, but later had to freed him to marry in order to secure dynastic rights to Austria once again.
During the 13th century happened intensive colonisation by inhabitants of predominately German origin which resulted in establishing many new towns and villages.
Czech silver coins. Přemysl Ottokar II was nicknamed as ”The Iron and Golden King”, iron because of his famous heavily armed knights, golden because of the richness of his kingdom, which came mainly from silver mines.
Přemysl Ottokar II (1253 – 1278) was one of the most famous Central European rulers. But when Ottokar II gained domain extending from Austria to Adriatic sea there started to be serious concerns over his power. For this reason the Emperor was elected unimportant count Rudolf I of Habsburg/Germany. In subsequent wars Ottokar not only lost nearly all his lands to Rudolf but also died during the Battle on the Marchfeld.
Václav II (1278/83–1305) managed to get both Polish (after extinction of Piasts) and Hunarian crowns (ditto of Arpads) but both of them were declared null by the Pope. His son Václav III (1305 - 1306) was killed just before his attempt to invade Poland, resulting in Přemyslids dying out in the male line.
During 4 restless years of disputes ended up on the Czech throne John of Luxembourg by marrying Eliška of Přemyslids, Václav’s sister.
John of Luxembourg (1310–1346) was a famous warrior and politician of European format who despite lack of governance in his own country (“The Stranger King”) managed to increase the size and power of the kingdom, including the acquisition of Cheb and Upper Lusatia. Czech aristocracy didn’t hold much respect for him and his wife Eliška was possibly planning overthrown to put Přemyslids back on the throne. Their son Václav was sent to be raised in France to lose his mother’s attitude. He adopted here the name Charles.
Chalres IV (the first Charles on Czech throne but the fourth Roman Emperor) was extremely well-educated and fluent in five languages. His reign is considered as Czech “Golden Age." Between his many accomplishments belongs the founding of the Charles University (first of its kind in Central Europe), the establishment of Prague’s New Town, the Charles Bridge, or the castle Karlštejn guarding the Czech coronation jewels.
Charles IV (1346–1378) was the first Czech king, who also became Holy Roman Emperor. After the coronation as the king of Burgundy he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms under the Holy Roman Empire.
He was also the author of the important imperial decrees Golden Bull, which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Empire. Charles IV in it also significantly regulated the relationship of the Czech state to the Empire, creating Lands of the Czech crown (area under the rule of Bohemian kings, known sometimes only as Czech crown), which remained beyond the Reich’s suzerainty.
During his reign the Czech lands reached significant prosperity. In the time of Chalres IV, Prague was elevated to the seat of the Empire and became one of the largest cities in Europe. Charles also gained Brandenburg, Upper Palatinate, Lusatia and few other Silesian principalities. Thanks to his popularity, Charles was after his death declared "The Father of the Country".
Next: The Hussite Wars
Stále ste na tom lepšie ako my tak hlavu hore :D Mohla by som spraviť dlhý príspevok vyslovene o zmäkčovaní a stále by to nikto nepochopil
Já jsem zjistila, že vysvětlit i úplně jednoduché věci tak, aby to pochopil i někdo, kdo češtině úplně nerozumí, není žádná sranda :D
I heavily advice you to master this first.
For a start I want you to know that this is something that won’t and can’t be covered in one post. But we can make a significant step by learning this:
hard consonants: after H CH K R D T N needs to be y
soft consonants: after Ž Š Č Č C J Ď Ť Ň needs to be i
The only thing you can do now is to memorize it. Foreign words like risk, bicykl, rizoto or tip have their i/ys the way you know them.
That was kind of easy right? Well…there is one problem.
Take the word nic. Why there isn’t “nyc” when we have N in hard consonants?
Because it’s actually pronounced as “ňic”. There is a rule that says you never ever can write something like this: ňic, zňičit, ďivný, ťicho
So every time you see in a text seemly incorrect use of hard consonants D, T and N, it’s actually supposed to be read as soft consonants. Examples: divočina (wildreness), tatínek (daddy), nic (nothing) are actually pronounced as ďivočina, taťínek, ňic.
Conclusion: when Ď, Ť or Ň is followed by i then we DO NOT write the wedge (háček = ˇ)
Generally we know the whole business with i/y doesn’t logically make sense. But if you don’t want your writing to give an impression of first grader, those are essential.
We also have ambiguous consonants: after B F L M P S V Z everything can happen so we’ll leave them for another time.
Take this exercise as something to get acquainted with hard/soft consonants and to expand your vocabulary because you probably won’t understand all the words you’ll be given to complete. That’s quite all right, you’ll have to do a single exercise a few times before you get it right. How to navigate there: Choose Měkké a tvrdé souhlásky (Hrad or soft consonants) or later Psaní i-í, y-ý po d, t, n (Use of i-í, y-ý after d, t, n)
správná odpověď = right answer
chybná odpověď = wrong anser
___ je měkká/tvrdá souhláska = ___ is hard/soft consonant
Procvičit! = Practise now!
Do you have any Czech love quotes?
Oddly the first thing that came to my head were two Czech proverbs: Láska prochází žaludkem (“Love goes via the stomach”, something like “the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach”) and Stará láska nerazaví (“Old love doesn’t rust”, something close to “old love won’t be forgotten”)
Quotes are harder, I can only think about one of the most famous one “Truth and love will overcome lies and hatred.” (Pravda a láska zvítězí nad lží a nenávistí) by Václav Havel and “V lásce a válce je možné všechno” (Everything is allowed in love and war) by Vladimír Páral. There is also "Láska je nemoc, která se nedá vyléčit" (Love is a disease that can’t be cured) by Božena Němcová and “Jak je život těžký s láskou - jak je prázdný bez ní!“ (How hard is life with love - how empty is life without one!) by Sofie Podlipská.
Maybe my followers can add their favourite love quotes? You can even send them anonymously.
The Dyje (German: Thaya) is a river in Central Europe, tributary to the Morava River. It is about 235 km long and meanders from west to east in the border area between Lower Austria and South Moravia, but does not exactly follow the Czech-Austrian border in most parts. Its source is in two smaller rivers, namely the Rakouská Dyje (Deutsche Thaya) and the Moravská Dyje (Mährische Thaya), the confluence of which is located at Raabs. Its name means “the inert”. (x)
Demonstration on Red Square in 1968 as protest against the invasion of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union of Czechoslovakia
8 participants gathered at a place called Lobnoje city on the Red Square, namely linguist Konstantin Babitsky, poet Vadim Delone, laborer Vladimir Dremljuga, Anglicist Viktor Faynberg, poet and translator Natalya Gorbanevskaya, physicist Pavel Litvinov, linguist Larisa Bogorazová and Tatyana Bajevová.
They had with them a little Czechoslovak flag and banners with various slogans, including: For your and our freedom “,” Long live free Czechoslovakia! “,” Shame to occupiers”.
After the arrest in October they were sentenced to several years of exile, to stay in work camps and psychiatric hospitals.
St. Nicholas Church/ Kostel svatého Mikuláše - architect Christoph Dientzenhofer, Prague, Czech Republic (by buildings fan)
Karel Kryl (April 12, 1944 Kroměříž – March 3, 1994 Munich) was an iconic Czech singer-songwriter and performer of many protest songs in which he strongly criticized and identified the shortcomings and inhumanity of the Communist and later also post-communist regime in his home country. The repertoire of his songs ranged from short, percussive, pamphlet songs to longer melancholic pieces.
His most famous song Bratříčku zavírej vrátka (Close the Gate, Little Brother) was composed spontaneously on 22.8. 1968 as an immediate reaction to the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia.